Politická ekonomie
Politická ekonomie
Politická ekonomie
TEORETICKÝ ČASOPIS • ISSN 0032-3233 (Print) • ISSN 2336-8225 (Online)

Politická ekonomie Vol. 63 No. 5

Poptávka po reálných peněžních zůstatcích v ČR a její determinanty

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18267/j.polek.1014

[plný text (PDF)]

Martin Gürtler

Paper deals with an important area of monetary economics, the demand for money. Concretely we propose results from an empirical investigation of determinants of the demand for real money balances in the Czech Republic. From the methodological point of view we use models of multivariate time series analysis in the co-integrated context, the VAR and VEC models, and the generalized impulse response functions for an estimation of trajectories of adjustment processes. Based on the results, we can say that the real money balances in the broader definition (in the sense of M2 monetary aggregate) are demanded by economic agents in relation to a long-run evolution of their needs, and during this, they are not systematically influenced by economic shocks. This also implies stability and simple predictability of the demand. Demand in the narrow sense, including currency and demand deposits, exhibits a greater volatility due to different shocks. Therefore this narrow demand is continuously adjusted to arising disequilibriums, going from both inside and outside of the economy. Nevertheless in the long run there exists an equilibrium relationship among the demand for real money balances in the narrow sense, the interest rate, the real effective exchange rate and the rate of unemployment. Majority of observed relationships is consistent with a priori assumptions, which are formulated through a theoretical model. Finally, it is possible to show, that direct long-run equilibrium relationship between the demand for real money balances in the narrow sense and the volume of transactions (or real production) does not exist. On the contrary, we have also found that a transactions demand is influenced by the business cycle. However the elasticity of transactions demand with respect to the business cycle is relatively small and hence we conclude that a considerable part of this demand is constant over time and a speculative demand is more important for the description of the demand for real money balances development. The difference between a behavior of the demand for real money balances in the narrow and in the broader definition, we are explaining by a portfolio re-optimization effect.

JEL klasifikace: E12, E13, E32, E41, E51, F41