Politická ekonomie
Politická ekonomie
Politická ekonomie
TEORETICKÝ ČASOPIS • ISSN 0032-3233 (Print) • ISSN 2336-8225 (Online)

Politická ekonomie Vol. 67 No. 3

Obchodně-politické překážky vývozu zboží z Evropské unie do USA: význam liberalizace obchodních toků

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18267/j.polek.1242

[plný text (PDF)]

Milan Bednář

The paper deals with effects of trade liberalization of EU goods exports to the USA. Despite the current protectionist tendencies of US President Donald Trump, the USA is strongly motivated to promote a deeper trade liberalization in the longer horizon, further strengthening bilateral trade flows, increasing economic efficiency, and thus contributing to the growth of both economies. The primary objective is to evaluate a hypothesis which states that reducing political trade barriers could notably increase the flows. We use gravity models and our own constructed non-tariff trade barrier time series based on tens of thousands of values for EU-28 countries in relation to the USA between 1995–2014. The data are obtained from an analysis of US legislature, in contrast to previous studies which used subjective survey data. The secondary goal is to assess whether a substantial reduction of non-tariff barriers is realistic or not, an issue which other researchers have overlooked. The level of bilateral non-tariff barriers imposed by the USA against EU exporters is rather low in the international comparison, a substantial reduction is not a reasonable assumption. We conclude that dealing with non-tariff trade barriers is crucial as it can substantially increase the bilateral trade flows. Even a less optimistic scenario, with a smaller decrease in trade barriers, suggests that the EU goods exports to the USA could be increased by more than 20%.

JEL klasifikace: E60, F10, F40

Reference:
Abboushi, S. (2010). Trade Protectionism: Reasons and Outcomes. Competitiveness Review,

20(5), 384–394, https://doi.org/10.1108/10595421011080760

Anderson, J. E., Van Wincoop, E. (2003). Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the

Border Puzzle. American Economic Review, 93(1), 170–192, https://doi.

org/10.1257/000282803321455214

Baláž, P. a kol. (2015). Konkurencieschopnosť a jej význam v národnej ekonomike. Bratislava:

Sprint 2. ISBN 978-80-897-1020-1.

Bruegel (2017). REER Database for 178 Countries. [Cit. 2018-02-05] Dostupné z:

http://bruegel.org/ publications/datasets/real-effective-exchange-rates-for-178-

countries-a-new-database

Bubáková, P. (2013). Gravitační model mezinárodní směny, jeho proměnné, předpoklady,

problémy a aplikace. Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, 21(2), 3–24, https://doi.org/10.18267/j.

aop.396

Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) (2013). Reducing Transatlantic Barriers to Trade

and Investment: An Economic Assessment. Official report for the European Comission.

Dostupné z: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2013/march/tradoc_150737.pdf

CEPII (2013). Transatlantic Trade: Whither Partnership, Which Economic Consequences? CEPII –

Policy Brief. Dostupné z: http://www.cepii.fr/PDF_PUB/pb/2013/pb2013-01.pdf

Český statistický úřad (2012). Standardní mezinárodní klasifikace zboží. Dostupné

z: https://www.czso.cz/documents/10180/20551095/60011111j02_c.

pdf/659d2649-c69d-4ffa-aaf1-741169332ce2?version=1.0

Ecorys (2009). Non-Tariff Measures in EU-US Trade and Investment – An Economic Analysis.

ECORYS Nederland B.V. Dostupné z: http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2009/

december/tradoc_145613.pdf

Engler, P., Tervala, J. (2016). Welfare Effects of TTIP in a DSGE Model. Freie Universität

Berlin – School of Business & Economics. Discussion Paper No. 2016/2017, https://

doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2841193. Dostupné z: http://edocs.fu-berlin.de/docs/servlets/

MCRFileNodeServlet/FUDOCS_derivate_000000006885/discpaper2016_17.pdf?hosts

Eurostat (2018). Eurostat Database. [Cit. 2018-06-26] Dostupné z: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat

Evropská komise (2011). EU-US Summit: Fact sheet on High-Level Working

Group on Jobs and Growth. Dostupné z: http://europa.eu/rapid/

press-release_MEMO-11-843_en.htm?locale=en

Felbermayr, G. J., Larch, M. (2013). The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP):

Potentials, Problems and Perspectives. CESifo Forum, Ifo Institute – Leibniz Institute for

Economic Research at the University of Munich, 14(2), 49–60.

Fidrmuc, J. (2009). Gravity Models in Integrated Panels. Empirical Economics, 37(2), 435–446,

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-008-0239-5

Ghodsi, M. a kol. (2017). The Evolution of Non-Tariff Measures and their Diverse Effects on Trade.

Wiener Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsvergleiche. Research Report No. 419.

Dostupné z: https://wiiw.ac.at/the-evolution-of-non-tariff-measures-and-their-diverseeffects-

on-trade-dlp-4213.pdf

Hanson, D. (2010). Limits to Free Trade: Non-Tariff Barriers in the European Union, Japan and

United States. Cheltenham, UK Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar. ISBN 978-1-84720-247-5.

Haq, Z. a kol. (2010). Does the Gravity Model Suffer from Selection Bias? Canadian Agricultural

Trade Policy And Competitiveness Research Network. Working Papers No. 90884.

Dostupné z: https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/90884/2/Working_Paper_2010-1_

Haq.pdf

Herghelegiu, C. (2018). The Political Economy of Non‐Tariff Measures. The World Economy, 41(1),

262–286, https://doi.org/10.1111/twec.12582

Chan, F. a kol. (2014). Gravity Models of Trade: Unobserved Heterogeneity and Endogeneity.

New York University. Working Paper No. 2451/33571. Dostupné z: https://papers.ssrn.com/

sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2411961

Janda, K., Michalíková, E., Potácelová, V. (2010). Gravitační a fiskální modely státní podpory

exportních úvěrů v České republice. Politická ekonomie, 58(3), 305–325, https://doi.org/10.18267/j.polek.732

Niu, Z. a kol. (2018). Non-tariff and Overall Protection: Evidence Across Countries and

Over Time. Review of World Economics, 154(4), 675–703, https://doi.org/10.1007/

s10290-018-0317-5

Orefice, G. (2017). Non-Tariff Measures, Specific Trade Concerns and Tariff Reduction. The World

Economy, 40(9), 1807–1835, https://doi.org/10.1111/twec.12447

Reinert, K. A. (2009). Gravity Models. The Princeton Encyclopedia of the World Economy. Princeton:

Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-69-112812-2.

Semerák, V. (2012). Zachrání Čína české exporty? CERGE EI IDEA. Studie 6/2012. Dostupné z:

https://idea.cerge-ei.cz/documents/studie_2012_06.pdf

Shepherd, B. (2013). The Gravity model of International Trade: A User Guide. United Nations.

Dostupné z: http://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/tipub2645.pdf

Scherrer, C., Abernathy, E. (2017). Trump’s Trade Policy Agenda. Intereconomics, 52(6), 364–369,

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10272-017-0705-4

Silva, J. S., Tenreyro, S. (2006). The Log of Gravity. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 4(88),

641–658, https://doi.org/10.1162/rest.88.4.641

Světová banka (2018). World Development Indicators – Current GDP, Total Population.

[Cit. 2018-01-25] Dostupné z: http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=2

Světová obchodní organizace (2012). A Practical Guide to Trade Policy Analysis. New York: United

Nations Conference on Trade and Development. Dostupné z: https://www.wto.org/

english/res_e/publications_e/wto_unctad12_e.pdf

Světová obchodní organizace (2013). World Trade Report 2013. Geneva: WTO Publications.

Dostupné z: https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr13_e.htm

Štěrbová, L. (2013). Mezinárodní obchod ve světové krizi 21. století. Praha: Grada.

ISBN 978-80-247-4694-4.

UN Comtrade a UNCTAD Trains (2018a). Database. [Cit. 2018-02-02] Dostupné z:

https://wits.worldbank.org

UNCTAD Trains (2018b). Non-Tariff Measures (NTM). [Cit. 2018-02-04] Dostupné z:

http://i-tip.unctad.org